Economists for Ukraine

Countries have many instruments to extend their power across the world – from culture and food to educational and scientific exchange to loans and foreign direct investment (FDI). In dictatorships such as Russia or China these initiatives are rarely private – most often there is a coordinated policy implemented with the long-term goal of controlling critical resources and creating leverage over other countries. One prominent example is the use of energy and food as weapons by Russia. Other sectors may be less obvious, but in this article we catalog Chinese and Russian FDI in Africa and its strategic goals.